Jump to content

Li-ion vs. Lead-acid, the battery technology to beat

Recommended Posts

Lithium ion batteries

....(sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. They are currently one of the most popular types of battery, with one of the best energy-to-weight ratios, no memory effect and a slow loss of charge when not in use. They can be dangerous if mistreated, however, and unless care is taken they may have a shorter lifespan compared to other battery types. A more advanced lithium-ion battery design is the lithium polymer cell.



Li batteries are lighter than equivalents in other chemistries — often much lighter. This is because lithium ions have an extremely high charge density — the highest of all known naturally occurring ions. Li ions are small and mobile, but more readily stored than hydrogen. Thus a battery based on lithium is smaller than one with hydrogen elements, such as nickel metal hydride, and with fewer volatile gases. The ions need fewer storage intermediaries, so more battery weight is usable as charge, instead of overhead.


Li-ion batteries do not suffer from the memory effect. They also have a low self-discharge rate of approximately 5% per month, compared with over 30% per month and 20% per month in nickel metal hydride batteries and nickel cadmium batteries, respectively.


According to one manufacturer [1], Li-Ion cells (and, accordingly, "dumb" Li-Ion batteries) do not have any self-discharge in the usual meaning of this word. What looks like a self-discharge in these batteries is a permanent loss of capacity, described in more detail below. On the other hand, smart Li-Ion batteries do self-discharge, due to the small constant drain of the built-in voltage monitoring circuit. This drain is the most important source of self-discharge in these batteries.



A unique drawback of the Li-ion battery is that its life span is dependent upon aging from time of manufacturing (shelf life) regardless of whether it was charged, and not just on the number of charge/discharge cycles. This drawback is not widely publicized.


At a 100% charge level, a typical Li-ion laptop battery that is full most of the time at 25 degrees Celsius or 77 degrees Fahrenheit, will irreversibly lose approximately 20% capacity per year. However a battery stored inside a poorly ventilated laptop, may be subject to a prolonged exposure to much higher temperatures than 25 °C, which will significantly shorten its life. The capacity loss begins from the time the battery was manufactured, and occurs even when the battery is unused. Different storage temperatures produce different loss results: 6% loss at 0 °C/32 °F, 20% at 25 °C/77 °F, and 35% at 40 °C/104 °F. When stored at 40% charge level, these figures are reduced to 2%, 4%, 15% at 0, 25 and 40 degrees Celsius respectively.


This makes Li-Ion batteries unsuitable for back-up applications compared to lead-acid batteries, and even to Ni-MH batteries


@Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_ion_battery


= =



Lithium-ion batteries make a grab for power

By Vince Biancomano


Lithium-ion batteries are poised to do it all. In a two-fold development analogous to DC/DC converters where half-bricks and now quarter-bricks have the capability of some full-bricks, nickel cadmium (NiCd) and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries have become a viable alternative to mains-powered and stand alone DC systems in selected power applications. Now lithium-ions, the battery of choice for powering wireless and portable devices, are making a run at NiCd, NiMH, and the traditional lead-acid battery.


Touting new chemistries (the latest of which include nickel cobalt manganese), some of the newest lithium-ion types claim up to 50 percent more power, longer run times, faster charge times, and longer lifetimes than nickel-cadmium. Beyond that, lithium-ions (nominal 3.6-volt devices, versus NiCd’s and NiMH's 1.2 volts) are evolving into so-called "big format" products in hopes of claiming a piece of the lead-acid market.


Indeed, while the number of new battery products into the market seemingly has slowed to a comparative trickle the last two years, conquering lead-acid remains a goal of just about every power source, including supercapacitors. The traditional "automobile" battery, however, retains stalwart support among major users and, they say, is likely to remain strong. Several new lead-acid entries bring power to their argument.


...MORE: http://www.powermanagementdesignline.com/news/187900140


= = =




Lead-acid : 4 years

Li-ion...... : 7 years

New Li-ion: 20 years maybe, by adding other chemicals

Link to comment
Share on other sites

YetMingChiang240.jpg . DW008%K-2_A6.gif


One of region's many success stories is a Lithium ion rechargeable battery company called "A 1-2-3 Systems" in Watertown . Co-founder Yet-Ming Chiang is a professor at MIT. He stands, ready for action with the first commercial product to use his battery, a saw in a new line of Dewalt power tools. "My favorite is the reciprocating saw. It's almost double the power that you can get out of the wall. So, the amount of work you can do in less time is really remarkable."


Making the transition from research to business is not easy for many inventors. Chiang avoided that pitfall by finding partners: one who raised money and another who took on business development. Chiang says his strength is in the lab. Chiang says that was confirmed in one early interview with a potential investor. "He said, well, you're a full time professor at MIT, how committed are you to this new company? I was a little bit stumped. And he said, OK, let me make it very simple for you, imagine a ham and egg sandwich. The chicken is participating, but the pig, now the pig is committed. So are you the chicken or the pig?"


Chaing's company, "A 123 Systems" has about 50 employees at its headquarters in Watertown , another 30 workers in Detroit working on a lighter, more powerful hybrid car battery and 30-million dollars to expand. All of the manufacturing, several hundred jobs, is in China , Korea and Taiwan. Chaing says Boston's strength is brain power. "It's important for us to be here as long as we depend on technology and innovation for our livelihood. To develop new products at the pace we would like to we really need to be at a place like Boston , if not Boston ." "A 1-2-3" started just four years ago with the help of one partner's extensive contacts in the venture capital community.


@: http://www.wbur.org/special/bostonatc/part2.asp


= =

A123 is the developer of a new generation of Lithium-Ion batteries that revolutionizes the way manufacturers design high power products. The Company is the first to simultaneously address the three major factors affecting battery performance: High Power, Intrinsic Safety and Long Life. A123Systems’ breakthrough technology, innovative manufacturing model, team of tier-one investors and industry leading executives are providing the power to change the game for today’s OEM, Military, Automotive, and medical device manufacturers.


Founded in 2001, A123Systems’ proprietary nanoscale electrode technology is built on initial developments from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


@: http://www.a123systems.com/html/company.html


= =


Speaker(s): Yet-Ming Chiang (MIT)

Title: Moving Science from the Lab to the Market: The A123 Lithium-Ion Battery Case


A new discovery from Prof. Yet-Ming Chiang’s lab at MIT has the potential to revolutionize the lithium-ion battery industry, an industry key to portable electronics, power tools, hybrid-electric automobiles, etc. Rather than license the technology, Chiang founded a new company to commercialize the technology. They discovered problems as they transitioned the science from the lab to production. The executive team must decide whether to shoot for the revolutionary goals which would require further development or choose more modest approaches that would bring them to production earlier. Their battles are against very large competitors located in Asia, and now particularly in China.


A copy of the case can be obtained from Lisa Noonan.


Kent Bowen will lead a 30-minute discussion of the A123Systems case, followed by a discussion by Prof. Yet-Ming Chiang on how the team solved the case dilemma and the general problems with commercializing bench science.


Prof. Chiang is the Kyocera Professor of Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to founding A123Systems, he was a co-founder of American Superconductor.


@: http://www.hbs.edu/units/tom/abstracts/science/ychiang.html

Link to comment
Share on other sites

MIT lines up battery of options

February 16, 2006



Better lithium ion batteries, solid-state batteries and new materials that could make rechargeable batteries for electric cars cheaper and safer are among MIT's most recent battery innovations.


MIT battery researcher Donald R. Sadoway, the John F. Elliott Professor of Materials Science, has said that eliminating all liquid from solid-state batteries could double or triple their capacity over the best existing commercial batteries.


"We think that there are opportunities for looking at multilayer thin-film laminates with no liquid, using a polymer as the electrolyte separator. You're looking at something that's similar to a potato chip bag, a polymer web coated with a different layer of chemistry. We can make that by the square mile -- it's not difficult to do," he said.


Sadoway has worked with Gerbrand Ceder, the R.P. Simmons Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, on new battery materials that could be used for electrodes on rechargeable batteries.


Ceder and other colleagues report in the Feb. 17 issue of Science on a new type of lithium battery that could become a cheaper alternative to the batteries that now power hybrid electric cars.


By spiking the common material lithium iron phosphate with tiny amounts of metal, MIT researchers led by Yet-Ming Chiang have also created a material with high potential for the next generation of rechargeable batteries in electric cars and other devices. Chiang, the Kyocera Professor of Ceramics in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, boosted lithium ion phosphate's electronic conductivity by eight orders of magnitude -- some 10 million times better than the starting material


@: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2006/batt-side.html

Link to comment
Share on other sites

(Evaluation of researh project by Swedish Energy Agency)


An environmentally friendly iron-based Li-ion battery for EV/EHV applications, Josh Thomas, UU


Energy relevance (scores 5/5)


30,000-50,000 kr/ battery could be feasible on a long term basis if successful with the project and remaining commercialization stages


Industrial relevance (scores 4/5)


If the project is successful, it opens interesting industrial prospects for Li-ion battery production in Sweden


Achievement of goal


The project concentrates on the development of a LiFePO4 based battery. Material research is performed to optimise teh battery and manufacturing of whole cells was just recently achieved. Secondly, a pilot plant to facilitate larger prototype scale batteries for electric vehicles are planned (100-200 Wh/unit) in the later part of the project. The full-sized batteries will be provided to modelling groups.


Patents are expected.


Scientific Value


Good collaberation with other internationally recognised groups exist. More cluster cooperation may be considered. Industrial coopeation on manufacturing could be useful to optimise the future battery.




The project is reaching a commercial stage and the issues of commercialization need to be given more attention. Some research themes remain (e.g. electrolytes). stronger Swedish initiatives on the EU level is recommended.



@: pg.19: http://www.stem.se/WEB%5CSTEMFe01e.nsf/V_M...20storage%22%22

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Tuesday, February 21, 2006


Battery Breakthrough

A new material could mean batteries that finally make electric cars practical.

By Kevin Bullis



A new high-capacity battery material could lead to super-efficient hybrid cars and electric vehicles, helping to slash U.S. gas consumption.


Researchers have long known that a material based on lithium, nickel, and manganese could be used to make lithium-ion batteries that store large amounts of energy. The problem is that batteries based on this material could be charged and discharged only slowly, otherwise the amount of energy they could store would drop dramatically.


Now researchers at MIT and the State University of New York in Stony Brook have shown a way around the problem. The breakthrough came last summer, when Kisuk Kang, a materials science graduate student at MIT, created a computer model that showed that when under conditions of high power, disorder in the lithium-nickel-manganese material caused it to compress and trap the lithium ions that allow electricity to flow. The researchers then synthesized a version of this material without this disorder, freeing the ions to move quickly.


The newly structured material might be a candidate for replacing the batteries used in today's hybrids cars. But its real value could come in taking advantage of both its power and high energy storage capacity in a different kind of hybrid, known as a plug-in hybrid, or else in all-electric vehicles.


Unlike today's hybrids, which ultimately depend on gasoline for power, but run efficiently by storing extra energy in batteries, a plug-in hybrid would use energy from the outlet in a garage, charging overnight, and would run completely on electricity for distances typical in a daily commute. The gasoline-powered engine would only kick in for long trips, after the batteries were depleted. This type of hybrid could save significant amounts of gasoline, since something like 75 percent of daily driving is for short trips, says Gerbrand Ceder, the materials science professor at MIT who led the effort to develop the new material.


Ceder says the new material could cut down on the weight of battery packs for plug-in hybrids by four or five times. The higher rate capability should also make for speedier charging, allowing top-offs between trips that extend the distance a vehicle could go between overnight recharges.


Other attractive features of batteries based on the new material, according to Ceder, are improved safety over other lithium-ion batteries and lower cost. Lower cost, lighter weight, and faster charging might make the batteries attractive for electric vehicles as well.


...MORE: http://www.technologyreview.com/read_artic...&ch=biztech

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Wednesday, February 22, 2006


Battery Breakthrough -- An Update

As President Bush talks up the need for more research, scientists are making advances in hybrids and all-electric vehicles.

By Kevin Bullis


. .

The newly structured material might be a candidate for replacing the batteries used in today's hybrids cars. But its real value could come in taking advantage of both its power and high energy storage capacity in a different kind of hybrid, known as a plug-in hybrid -- the potentially highly-efficient vehicle Bush spotlighted in his speech on Monday, saying these cars could eventually get 100 miles per gallon. The new technology could also help make all-electric vehicles practical.


President Bush came to Johnson Controls, which last fall announced a new center of excellence for developing lithium-ion batteries for hybrids, to talk up his Advanced Energy Initiative, first announced in this year's State of the Union address. The Bush administration's 2007 budget provides $31 million for battery technology research, compared with $150 million for research into deriving ethanol from biomass, and nearly twice that amount, $288 million, for hydrogen fuel-cell research.


Unlike today's hybrids, which ultimately depend on gasoline for power, but run efficiently by storing extra energy in batteries, a plug-in hybrid would use energy from the outlet in a garage, charging overnight, and would run completely on electricity for distances typical in a daily commute. The gasoline-powered engine would only kick in for long trips, after the batteries were depleted. This type of hybrid could save significant amounts of gasoline, since something like 75 percent of daily driving is for short trips, says Gerbrand Ceder, the materials science professor at MIT who led the effort to develop the new material.


@: http://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?id=16578

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Science 17 February 2006:

Vol. 311. no. 5763, pp. 977 - 980

DOI: 10.1126/science.1122152


Electrodes with High Power and High Capacity for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries


Kisuk Kang,1 Ying Shirley Meng,1 Julien Bréger,2 Clare P. Grey,2 Gerbrand Ceder1*


New applications such as hybrid electric vehicles and power backup require rechargeable batteries that combine high energy density with high charge and discharge rate capability. Using ab initio computational modeling, we identified useful strategies to design higher rate battery electrodes and tested them on lithium nickel manganese oxide [Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2], a safe, inexpensive material that has been thought to have poor intrinsic rate capability. By modifying its crystal structure, we obtained unexpectedly high rate-capability, considerably better than lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), the current battery electrode material of choice.


1 Center for Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

2 Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794–3400, USA.



@: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abst...ourcetype=HWCIT

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: gceder@mit.edu



= = = = =


Li-Ion Batteries can Blow-up, catch Fire



+ Li-Ion and Polymer batteries & packs may explode and cause fire if misused or defective. We require all Li-ion batteries & packs buyers to be professionals and to be capable of handling emergencies.


+ You must follow our instructions, which are listed on batterypace.com product page, exactly in orfrt to control charging and discharging current.


+ When charging a Li-Ion Battery Pack, please put battery in a fire-proof container. Please do not leave battery pack and charger on a wood material or carpet


+ Must keep Li-Ion & Polymer battery packs away from children.


...MORE: http://www.batteryspace.com/index.asp?Page...mp;Category=894


- -

Dell recalls more than 4 million laptop batteries

By Antone Gonsalves


Dell Inc. on Monday recalled 4.1 million Sony-manufactured laptop batteries, saying they could overheat and pose a fire risk.

The Dell-branded lithium-ion batteries were provided as service replacements by the Round Rock, Texas, computer maker, or included with laptops from April 1, 2004 through July 18, 2006. The notebooks sold for between $500 and $2,850, and individual batteries ranged from $60 to $180.

. .


In June, a Dell laptop burst into flames during a conference in Japan. Pictures of the charred computer were posted on the tech site The Inquirer. No one was hurt, and the computer maker said at the time that it was investigating.


@: http://www.powermanagementdesignline.com/n...LOSKH0CJUNN2JVN

Link to comment
Share on other sites

The longest lasting 9V battery in critical applications.



The Ultralife;lithium 9-volt battery is a fully compatible

alternative to standard 9V batteries that lasts up to 5 times

longer than ordinary alkaline and 10 times longer than zinc carbon



I has the highest energy density, flattest discharge voltage

curve, longest shelf life, widest operating temperature range, and

lightest weight of any comparable 9-volt battery.


This and its 10-year service life make it ideal for many

critical applications such as premium smoke alarms and edical



@: http://www.h-squared.co.uk/news/5/10/ultra...lithium_9v.html

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Thursday, August 03, 2006

Are Lithium-Ion Electric Cars Safe?

The use of a type of battery with a history of overheating raises safety concerns.

By Kevin Bullis



Laptops equipped with lithium-ion batteries occasionally overheat and catch fire. This has some people concerned about the use of this type of battery in new electric sports cars and kits for converting conventional cars and hybrid vehicles into all-electric cars.


It's an exciting time for electric vehicles -- with regular announcements of increasing storage capacities for battery materials (see "Battery Breakthrough") and exotic, high-priced vehicles slated to come onto the market, such as the recently announced sports car from Tesla Motors of San Carlos, CA. But electric vehicles have failed in the past. If they're going to succeed this time around, they'll need to win over the general consumer, and that will mean, among other things, demonstrating that the powerful battery packs are safe.


Lithium-ion batteries have long been favored for powering laptops and cell phones because they're small and light. But packing so much energy into a small space is also dangerous. The batteries have been known to burst into flames, sometime violently; and because both the fuel and the oxidizer are bundled into the battery, they can't be smothered like common fires, says Dan Doughty, who manages lithium-ion battery testing at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM.


The key safety challenges are preventing overcharging, overheating, and damage in an accident. In each case, chemical reactions can get out of control, causing "thermal runaway," which can generate temperatures hot enough to melt aluminum and cause batteries to explode, he says.


According to the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission, from 2003 to 2005 more than 300 incidents occurred involving lithium-ion laptop and cell-phone batteries overheating or catching fire. Many of the incidents involved personal injury.


This potential problem with lithium-ion batteries is multiplied by the thousands in vehicles. In the case of Tesla Motors' car, for example, almost 7,000 batteries are packed behind the passenger compartment to power the car (to an impressive 60 mph in about four seconds).


But the company has done a lot to keep its battery-powered system safe -- much more than is done in laptops, says CEO Martin Eberhard.


...MORE: http://www.technologyreview.com/read_artic...&ch=biztech

Link to comment
Share on other sites


This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies.

  • Create New...