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CIGS: copper-indium-gallium-selenide


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many solar cell technologies rely on the same alloy -- called CIGS (for copper-indium-gallium-selenide) -- deposited in an extremely thin layer on a flexible surface.


....MORE: http://www.energybulletin.net/19262.html


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Gallium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. A rare, soft silvery metallic poor metal, gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures but liquefies slightly above room temperature and indeed will melt in the hand. It occurs in trace amounts in bauxite and zinc ores. An important application is in the compound gallium arsenide, used as a semiconductor, most notably in light-emitting diodes (LEDs).


Indium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol In and atomic number 49. This rare, soft, malleable and easily fusible poor metal, is chemically similar to aluminium or gallium but looks more like zinc (zinc ores are also the primary source of this metal). Its current primary application is to form transparent electrodes from Indium tin oxide in liquid crystal displays. It is also widely used in thin-films to form lubricated layers (during World War II it was widely used to coat bearings in high-performance aircraft).


Selenide ... The selenide ion is Se2−.

A selenide is a chemical compound in which selenium serves as a anion with oxidation number of −2, much as sulfur does in a sulfide.


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"Gallium is now about $500 per kilogram but has been as high as $1,500/kg," he said. "As gallium mining is controlled by a few suppliers, and the raw gallium cost is 25 percent of GaAs wafer cost, when the price rises again, you don't want to be shipping a 625-micron wafer-thickness depth of GaAs when a wafer only needs to contain gallium in the top few microns."


Most gallium is produced as a by-product of extracting aluminum from bauxite, while the remainder is extracted (principally by Dowa Mining in Japan) from by-products of zinc processing


One potential miner is Gold Canyon Resources (GCU.v): evaluating deposits in Nevada




More on : Gallium Mining & Extraction:

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Gold Canyon begins drilling at Cordero



2006-08-09 09:43 ET - News Release


Ms. Elaine Einarson reports




Gold Canyon Resources Inc. has commenced its planned 2006 drilling program at its Cordero gallium project. The drill program is planned to consist of approximately 25,000 feet of reverse circulation drilling and will be conducted under the supervision of consulting geologists Samuel Nunnemaker and Rick Rukavina.


Cordero is already recognized as the largest known primary gallium occurrence in North America. This aggressive drilling program is designed to expand the mineralization and resources, and increase the grade of the resources at Cordero as initially reported in the company's recently completed independent technical report entitled NI 43-101 technical report and resource estimation for the Cordero gallium project, Humboldt county, Nevada, U.S., dated April 16, 2006, which was prepared by reserva International LLC, of Reno, Nev. A copy of the Cordero technical report is filed and available on SEDAR or through on the company's website.


The drilling contractor for the program is Drift Exploration Drilling, of Calgary. Drift has conducted all of the drilling on the project to date and is very familiar with the drilling conditions on the property. All samples will be analyzed by Inspectorate Laboratories, of Reno, Nev.


Drill samples will be analyzed for valuable rare earth elements (REEs) together and other minor metals in addition to gallium. These analyses will be modelled together with results of analyses of drill samples from phases I and II, which are expected shortly.


@: http://www.stockwatch.com/swnet/newsit/new...p;news_region=C


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Gold Canyon Resources Inc.: Akiko Levinson Appointed as Acting CEO

Friday July 21, 5:17 pm ET



VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA--(MARKET WIRE)--Jul 21, 2006 -- Gold Canyon Resources Inc. (TSX VENTURE:GCU.V - News) ("Gold Canyon" or "the Company") announces that Mr. Robert Carrington will step down as the Company's Chief Executive Officer effective July 31, 2006 and will be replaced by Ms. Akiko Levinson, who will assume the role of both President and acting Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Carrington will remain as a member of the Board of Directors of Gold Canyon and will continue to devote his efforts in his original role as consulting geologist to the Company.

Gold Canyon is engaged in the acquisition and exploration of mineral and precious metals properties. The Company controls a 100% interest in the Springpole Gold Project, and the Favourable Lake Poly-metallic Project, both in the Red Lake Mining District of Ontario, Canada. Through its wholly owned US subsidiary, Gold Canyon Resources USA Inc., the Company controls a 100% interest in the Cordero Gallium Project situated in Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A. Additional information can be found on the Company's website: www.goldcanyon.ca.


Akiko Levinson, President & Director


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May 30, 2006 -- Gold Canyon Resources Inc. (TSX VENTURE:GCU.V - News) ("Gold Canyon" or "the Company") is pleased to announce it has closed the non-brokered private placement originally announced on May 4, 2006 and has issued 920,667 common share units (the "Units") at $0.40 (US$0.36) per Unit for gross proceeds of $368,266.80 (US$331,440.00). Each Unit consists of one common share in the capital of the Company and one half of one non-transferable common share purchase warrant, each whole warrant entitling the holder to acquire one additional common share at a price of $0.50 (US$0.45) per share until May 29, 2008


Jay Taylor's write-up


The Cordero Gallium Project

Springpole isn’t all Gold Canyon has. It also has the Cordero Gallium Project in northwestern Nevada.

What is gallium? Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element identified by the symbol “Ga.” It has an

atomic number of 31. Pure gallium is a solid magnetic metal at room temperature. It melts at 30 degrees C

(86 F), turning to a bright silvery liquid that begins to boil at 2,403 C (4,357 F)—the widest temperature

range of any known metal in liquid state. However, the unusual characteristic of gallium makes it unique

and effective in a host of industrial uses.


Most gallium is produced as a by-product of treating bauxite (aluminum ore) and from zinc processing

residues. Roughly 95% of gallium is consumed in manufacturing electronic components such as cell

phones, DVD players, photocells, integrated circuits, and LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes). There are also

some very promising medical applications for this very unique metal, including use for more efficient

delivery of cancer-fighting drugs. It seems gallium is becoming increasingly in demand for a host of hightech

applications, and, given its limited supply, its price has risen significantly from its $16-per-ounce

bottom a few years ago. It has hit a high of $70 per ounce. The average cost of producing this metal is in

the $15 to $30 per ounce range. While we don’t have an exact cost figure for the Cordero Mine,

management has suggested in past discussions I have had with them that, given their grades, they should

be in the bottom half of this cost structure.


The average grade of gallium on the Cordero is said to be 157 grams/tonne, or just slightly more than five

ounces per ton. This would give the company an insitu value of anywhere from $80 per ton to $350 per

ton, depending on the market price. Lab tests have suggested recover rates of over 90% of the ore.

workload. The number of qualified labs has been significantly reduced in recent years. Also, there has

reportedly been some reluctance on the part of the lab doing the work for Gold Canyon to share their

protocol with a third-party lab that needs to independently verify the first lab’s results.


In summary, we see the Springpole Project as having the definite possibilities of becoming a relatively

large high-grade gold mine. If that picture unfolds, I believe this stock could rise very dramatically,

notwithstanding its boring performance since we most recently recommended it. As such, an allocation of

up to 5% is recommended for patient investors who do not need to use that investment for grocery money

anytime soon. The gallium project is interesting and could also provide a dramatic boost for shareholders,

though given the unusual nature of that project, I am most enamored by and confident in the Springpole

Project, realizing however that given infrastructure concerns outlined above, success is by no means

guaranteed. However, I feel the addition of Duncan Reismeyer could provide a big boost and energizing

element for this company.


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News Release, v.GCU : http://www.24hgold.com/InfoCompany.aspx?id=368

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I ma concerned about the management change.

I think the old CEO may have passed away and the new interim CEO is his wife.


I may phone her for a chat.


The Springpole asset has been around for a long time, the Gallium may be an interesting play,

but I don't know enough about it yet.


The idea of investing in co's that mine metals and minerals for Solar Cells is intringuing,

but needs more research- which is what this thread is for

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